The Ministry of Water Development and Sanitation is responsible for the development and management of water resources, provision of clean water supply and adequate sanitation for all. Water is a finite resource like any other natural resource but critical for sustainable development of the country. The mandate of the Ministry is to provide policy guidance in the water sector.
1991 saw a change in the Government of the Republic of Zambia that introduced general public service reforms and the liberalisation of the economy. This created a conducive environment for water sector reforms. In order to implement the reforms, a guide was required for the entire process. Thus, seven sector principles outlined in the 1994 National Water Policy were adopted as a first step to the implementation of the water sector reforms:
Zambia’s water resources include hydropower, petroleum, coal, biomass and renewable energy. Petroleum is the only resource which is wholly imported while the country is basically self-sufficient in all other energy resources, as it has substantial unexploited reserves of these forms of energy.