• Geophysics
  • Borehole Construction


It is basically defined as ‘’the searching of groundwater using scientific methods’’

The importance includes:

  • selecting a suitable area or points with high groundwater potential
  • to avoid wastage of funds (reduced chances of sinking a dry borehole)

Environmental features considered during siting are:

(i)  Rock type (geology)

(ii) Geological structures e.g. Fractures

(iii) Vegetation

(iv) Geomorphology


It does not measure the availability of groundwater (only measures the resistivity of earth materials)

A borehole is basically defined as “a hole bored or drilled in the earth especially to obtain water.”

Processes involved in Borehole construction:

(i)   Boring on the earth

(ii)  Installing casing pipes

(iii) Installing gravel pack material

(iv)Well development

(v)    Grouting

(vi) Pumping test/airlift

(vii)  Sealing the borehole

(viii) Water sampling and testing

(ix)    Water pump equipping

Water testing focuses on analyzing:

(i)     Physical parameters

(ii)     Chemical parameters

(iii)    Bacteriological parameters